2016 Poster Presentations

Soil Science Society of America - November 2016

M.A. Ponce de Leon1 , and Dell C.2 J, and H. D. Karsten1
The Pennsylvania State University; USDA ARS PSWM; State College, PA

Krishnan, K.1, M.D. Ruark1, and J.R. West1
1Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI

2015 Poster Presentations

Soil Science Society of America - November 2015

Bringing a needle to a laser fight: comparing greenhouse gas sampling methods with gas chromatography and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy 

Claire A Campbell1 Sarah M Collier1, Matthew D. Ruark1 and J. Mark Powell 2

1Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 2USDA-ARS, Dairy Forage Research Center, Madison, WI. 2nd place winner in master’s degree poster competition


Elizabeth McNamee and William L. Bland
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dept. of Soil Science Madison, WI
Effect of nitrogen- vs phosphorus-based manure and compost management on soil quality
Andrew Lefever, Amir Sadeghpour and Quirine M. Ketterings, Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
1st place winner of undergraduate student poster presentation

Nutrient runoff losses from liquid dairy manure applied with low-disturbance methods 

Jokela, W.E1., J.F. Sherman1, and J. Cavadini2.

1 USDA-ARS, Marshfield, WI and 2 University of Wisconsin-Madison, Marshfield, WI

Dairy Environmental Systems and Climate Adaptation Conference Cornell University - July 29-31, 2015

Alejandra Ponce de Leon1, Curtis Dell2 and Heather Karsten1, 1 Penn State University, 2USDA ARS PSWM, University Park, PA

Carolyn Betz, University of Wisconsin-Madison

​All CAP Project Director's Meeting - Washington, D.C. 

April 7-9, 2015

Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Dairy Production Systems of the Great Lakes Region

Matt Ruark, Carolyn Betz, and Molly Jahn. University of Wisconsin-Madison

The long-term research, extension and education outputs in the Dairy CAP will lead to mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production systems and will allow dairy production systems to adapt to changes in climate. These outcomes will be achieved without compromising profit to either the producer or processer while providing consumers with confidence that the dairy products are created in a sustainable manner. The outcomes of the project will be achieved through our five research teams: 1) Measurement,  2) Modeling, 3) Life-cycle assessment, 4) Extension, and 5) Education.

2014 Poster Presentations

Soil Health Under Nitrogen - Vs Phosphorus-Based Manure and Compost Management of Corn

Amir Sadeghpour, Quirine M. Ketterings, Gregory Godwin and Karl J. Czymmek Cornell University Ithaca, NY

In recent years manure and compost management is shifting from nitrogen (N)-based to phosphorus (P)-basis application due to environmental concerns from P and potassium (K) surplus that impacts water quality and forage quality, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a change from N-based applications without incorporation to a P- based (crop-removal) management system with immediate incorporation of manure on (i) soil pH, organic matter (OM), P, K, and nitrate accumulation at different depths, and (ii) soil carbon dioxide respiration in the top 20 cm of soil. A 5-yr field study was conducted with annual spring applications of two rates of composted dairy manure (45 and 77 Mg ha-1), two rates of liquid dairy manure (63.5 and 180 kL ha-1), and two inorganic N fertilizer rates (0 and 112 kg ha-1). Soil respiration was determined using the Solvita® test. After five growing seasons, the lowest soil pH was observed where 112 kg ha-1 inorganic N was added. Soil pH increased with depth, reflecting calcareous soil parent material. Soil organic matter was higher in compost treatments than the manure and inorganic treatments and decreased from upper (0-5 cm) to deeper soil layers (40-50 cm) in all treatments. Soil nitrate levels were higher in N-based manure and compost treatments than those of P-based and inorganic treatments. Soil P and K levels were higher in surface layers (0-5 and 5-20 cm) than deeper layers and showed the highest accumulations of P and K with N-based compost and manure additions. In 2005, OM and soil carbon dioxide respiration were linearly related (r2= 0.92; p<0.04). These results show that compost application can improve soil health over time. However, rates should be limited to reduce P and K buildup in the soil.



Impact of N Application Rate on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and pH in a Fertilizer-Management Continuous Corn Silage System


Amir Sadeghpour, Quirine M. Ketterings, Gregory Godwin and Karl J. Czymmek,

Cornell University Ithaca, NY


Nitrogen (N) is essential for producing optimum corn (Zea Mays L.) silage yield with high quality. Under-application can impact yield and quality while over-application can result in low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and hence loss of N to the environment, a decrease in soil pH, and possibly in soil organic matter. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the optimum N rate for continuous corn silage production and (ii) assess the influence of under- and over- application of N on yield, forage quality, soil nitrate, organic matter and pH. A 5-yr field study was conducted with six N rates (0, 56, 112, 168, and 224, and 280 kg N ha-1; sidedressed) in five replications for corn that was established with a 22 kg N     ha-1 starter. Corn silage yield (dry matter basis) varied from year-to-year. In 2002 and 2005 (July drought), corn yield did not increase with N application, averaging 6.2 and 12 Mg ha-1, respectively. In 2003 and 2004, the most economical N rates (MERN) were 95 and 107 kg N ha-1, respectively, with yields of 13.3 and 14.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Over five years, soil pH was decreased significantly with N application rates higher than 56 kg N ha-1. These findings suggested that over-application of N can increase lime needs over time. Nitrogen application rates below than MERN (0 and 56 kg N ha-1)decreased organic matter levels over time, possibly reflecting a reduction in carbon addition through root biomass for lower yielding plots. The results show an optimum N sidedress rate of 100 kg N ha-1 in good growing seasons versus 0 kg N ha-1 under challenging growing condition. The results also show that N application cannot overcome weather-related challenges for this soil.


Assessing greenhouse gas emissions of dairy manure from tannin in feeding trials


Claire Campbell1, Matthew D. Ruark1 and J. Mark Powell2

1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 2USDA-ARS, Madison, WI


Dairy production systems, especially manure land applications, are responsible for a significant amount of total livestock based agriculture greenhouse gas emissions. Tannin additions to dairy cow diets are known to result in reduced ammonia emissions, enhanced N use efficiency, and higher N content in manure feces in laboratory incubations. However, research on the effects of large scale field application of tannin enhanced manures has not been studied. The objective of this project is to understand how dairy diets with tannin additives impacts land application of manure, specifically quantifying greenhouse gas emissions, N uptake, and corn silage yield response. Raw manure from an experimental dietary trial with tannin additions was field applied on 15 May 2014 in Prairie du Sac, WI. Three diets were studied (no tannin and diets 0.45% and 1.8% tannin by weight), each at two N application rates (240 kg ha-1 and 360 kg ha-1), accompanied with a control of no manure application to corn silage. Greenhouse gas measurements for CO2, NH3, N2O, and CH4 were made intensively during the first 68 hours after application, then measured every 7- 14 days through the growing season using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Soil sampling from 0-10 and 10-20 cm accompanied GHG measurements and was analyzed for soil nitrate and ammonium. Silage was harvested and analyzed for plant tissue N and total yield from 9 m2 plots. Experimental results will be presented from the 2014 growing season for greenhouse gas emissions, plant available N, and corn silage yield data.


Effects of low-disturbance manure application methods on corn silage yields, plant and soil N, and gaseous N emissions


William E. Jokela1, John B. Peters2, Michael G. Bertram3 and Jason Cavadini2, (1)USDA-ARS, Marshfield, WI
(2)University of Wisconsin-Madison, Marshfield, WI (3)University of Wisconsin-Madison, Arlington, WI


Incorporation of manure by tillage can conserve manure N by reducing ammonia volatilization losses, but tillage also incorporates crop residue, which increases erosion potential. This study compared several low-disturbance manure application methods, designed to incorporate manure while still maintaining crop residue for erosion control, to conventional broadcast application in a silage corn/winter rye cover crop system. Treatments included low-disturbance sweep injection, sweep injection ridged with paired disks (strip-till), coulter injection, aerator-band, and broadcast with and without disk harrow incorporation (all fall-applied), plus pre-plant fertilizer N rates ranging from 0 to 200 kg/ha in separate non-manured plots. There were small differences in plant N concentrations (earleaf and silage harvest) and N uptake among injected/incorporated manure treatments, but all were greater than surface-applied manure, which was equal to or slightly greater than no-manure control. PSNT results were consistent with those of plant N. Ammonia emission was greatest from surface-applied manure, with reductions of 85% or more from injected manure and more modest reductions (30 to 55%) from aerator/band and disk incorporation. Residue cover of 30-40% pre-manure was reduced by manure application depending on intensity of injection or tillage action. These results indicate that low-disturbance manure application methods can reduce ammonia-N loss and improve manure N availability compared to surface application and maintain residue cover better than disk incorporation of manure.

​LCA Food Conference


Comparison of Process-Based Models to Quantify Major Nutrient Flows and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Milk Production

Karin Veltman1, Andrew Henderson2, Anne Asselin-Balencon1, Larry Chase3, Ben Duval4, Cesar Izaurralde5, Curtis Jones5, Changsheng Li6, Dingsheng Li1, William Salas7, Peter Vadas4, Olivier Jolliet1


(1) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (MI), (2) University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (TX), (3) Cornell University, Ithaca (NY), (4) United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Madison (WI), (5) University of Maryland, College Park (MD), (6) University of New Hampshire, Durham (NH), (7) Applied Geosolutions (AGS), Durham (NH)


Assessing and improving the sustainability of dairy production systems requires an accurate quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and major nutrient (N, C, P) flows associated with milk production at the animal, farm and field-scale. Life cycle inventory databases are often based on rough estimates of GHG emissions and nutrient flows, and cannot account for spatially-explicit variation in these flows. Integrating process-based farm models into LCA data acquisition can improve emission estimates as underlying processes influencing GHG emissions and nutrient balances are explicitly considered in these models.


The project aims to quantitatively compare five process-based models in terms of predicted nutrient flows (N, C, P) and GHG emissions associated with milk production at the animal, farm and field-scale; and to improve life cycle inventory databases for milk production in the US by integrating process-based models into LCA data acquisition. The five process-based models are: CNCPSv.6.1 (Animal); DAYCENT (Field); DNDC-manure (Farm); APEX (field to watershed); IFSM (farm)


Conclusion and further research

• Enteric CH4 emissions are dominating global warming potential at individual farm level

• Model predictions show large differencs for field N2O emissions and manure CH4 emissions. These will be checked against experimental data

• Further research focusses on determining the causes of these differences

• We will extend the model comparison to nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO43-) emission to groundwater • In addition, we will establish and compare whole-farm nutrient (N,P) balances

• Well validated process models are useful for extrapolating from specific experimental results to a broader range of conditions, as an input to LCA studies.

Ecological Society of America


Collier, Sarah M., Gail Kraus, Molly Jahn. August 2014. Energizing high school science education through a focus on food systems. Ecological Society of America. Sacramento, CA.​